Casey Chu

- Algebraic Topology
*I took these notes in fall 2016 for Math 215A, taught by Professor Gunnar Carlsson.*- Fundamental group
- A
**homotopy**between $f: Y \to X$ and $g : Y \to X$ is $h_t : Y \to X$ such that $h_0 = f$ and $h_1 = g$.- A
**homotopy rel $A$**is constant on $A \subseteq X$. - A homotopy of points is a path $\varphi_t \in X$, with $Y = \{ 0 \}$.
- A homotopy of paths is $h_t : I \to X$, with $Y = I$.
- A homotopy of loops is $h_t : S^1 \to X$, with $Y = S^1$.
**Homotopy equivalence**is an isomorphism in the homotopy category $\mathrm{hTop}$: $X$ and $Y$ are homotopy equivalent if $f \circ g$ and $g \circ f$ are homotopic to the identity.

- The
**fundamental group**$\pi_1(X, x)$ of $X$ is the set of loops ($\varphi : S^1 \to X$) at a base point $x$ modulo equivalence under homotopy, with the group operation of concatenation.- If $X$ is path-connected, then $\pi_1(X, x_0) = \pi_1(X, x_1)$.
- If $X$ is simply-connected, then $\pi_1(X) = 0$, by definition.
- If $X$ is convex, then $\pi_1(X) = 0$.
- $\pi_1(S^1) = \mathbb{Z}$.
- $\pi_1(X \times Y) = \pi_1(X) \times \pi_1(Y)$ for $X$ and $Y$ path-connected
**van Kampen theorem:**$\pi_1(U \cup V) = \pi_1(U) * \pi_1(V)$ assuming $U$, $V$, $U \cup V$, and $U \cap V$ are all open and path-connected and the base point is in $U \cap V$. The free product is taken with amalgamation with respect to $\pi_1(U \cap V)$.- $\pi_1(X \vee Y) = \pi_1(X) * \pi_1(Y)$ if $X$ and $Y$ are locally contractible.
- CW complexes

**Induced homomorphism:**A map $\varphi : (X,x) \to (Y,y)$ induces a homomorphism $\varphi_* : \pi_1(X, x) \to \pi_1(Y, y)$, since $\varphi$ maps loops to loops.- Concretely: $\varphi_*([f]) = [\varphi \circ f]$
- $\mathrm{id}_* = \mathrm{id}$
- $\pi_1 : \,\mathrm{Top}_* \to \mathrm{Grp}$ is a functor.
- If $X$ retracts into $A$, then $\iota_*$ is injective for the inclusion $\iota : A \hookrightarrow X$.
- A retraction is a map $r : X \to A$ such that $r(a) = a$.

- If $X$ has a deformation retract into $A$, then $\iota_*$ is an isomorphism.
- A
**deformation retract**is a homotopy from $h_0 = \mathrm{id}$ to $h_1$ such that $h_1(X) = A$ and $h_t$ is a retraction. - We can also think of it as a homotopy rel $A$ from $\mathrm{id}$ to a retraction into $A$.

- For a
**covering space**with projection $p : \tilde{X} \to X$, every point in $X$ has a neighborhood $U$ for which $p^{-1}(U)$ breaks up $\tilde{X}$ into disjoint open sets, each homeomorphic to $U$ by $p$. (Stack of pancakes!)- An
*isomorphism*between two covering spaces $p_1 : \tilde{X}_1 \to X$ and $p_2 : \tilde{X}_2 \to X$ is a homeomorphism $f : \tilde{X}_1 \to \tilde{X}_2$ such that $p_1 = p_2 \circ f$. - A basepoint-preserving isomorphism is analogous for pointed spaces.
**Homotopy lifting property:**Given a homotopy $h_t : Y \to X$, it’s possible to lift this uniquely to a homotopy $\tilde{h}_t : Y \to \tilde{X}$ of the covering space once we specify a compatible base point in the covering space $\tilde{h}_0 : Y \to \tilde{X}$.- The lifted homotopy satisfies $p \circ \tilde{h}_t = h_t$.

**Lifting criterion:**Given a map $f : (Y, y) \to (X, x)$, it’s possible to lift this to a map $\tilde{f} : (Y, y) \to (\tilde{X}, \tilde{x})$ if and only if $\mathrm{im}\,f_* \subseteq \mathrm{im}\,p_*$, assuming that $Y$ is path-connected and locally path-connected.- If $\tilde{f}_1(x) = \tilde{f}_2(x)$, then $\tilde{f}_1 = \tilde{f}_2$.

- $p_*$ is injective.
- The number of sheets of $p$ is the index of $\mathrm{im}\, p_*$ in $\pi_1(X, x)$.

- The subgroups of $\pi_1(X, x)$ correspond to path-connected covering spaces $p : \tilde{X} \to X$ (assuming $X$ is path-connected, locally path-connected, and semilocally simply-connected):
- The path-connected covering space $p: (\tilde{X}, \tilde{x}) \to (X, x)$ (up to basepoint-preserving isomorphism) corresponds bijectively with the subgroup $\pi_1(\tilde{X}, \tilde{x}) \cong \mathrm{im}\, p_* \le \pi_1(X, x)$.
- If $(\tilde{X}, \tilde{x}_1) \to (X, x)$ corresponds to $H$, then $(\tilde{X}, \tilde{x}_2) \to (X, x)$ corresponds to $g^{-1}Hg$, where $g$ is the class of loops whose lift is a path from $\tilde{x}_1$ to $\tilde{x}_2$.
- The
**universal covering space**of $(X, x)$ is the simply-connected covering space, which can be constructed as $\tilde{X} = \{ [\gamma] \,|\, \gamma : I \to X, \gamma(0) = x \}$ with $p([\gamma]) = \gamma(1)$. - The covering space corresponding to the subgroup $H$ can be constructed as the quotient of the universal covering space with the relation $[\gamma_1] \sim [\gamma_2]$ iff $\gamma_1(1) = \gamma_2(1)$ and $[\gamma_1 \gamma_2^{-1}] \in H$.
- \todo Normal subgroups iff normal covering spaces
- \todo The covering spaces (not necessarily connected) can be represented by permutations.

- Homological algebra
- A
**chain complex**$C_\bullet$ is a sequence of abelian groups (or objects in any abelian category) and homomorphisms $\cdots \to^\partial C_{n+1} \to^\partial C_n \to^\partial C_{n-1} \to^\partial \cdots$ - where $\partial^2 = 0$.
- $C_n$ represents the $n$-simplices of a space, called
**$n$-chains**. - $\partial_n : C_n \to C_{n-1}$ is the
**boundary map**, which takes a simplex to its boundary. - $Z_n = \mathrm{ker}\, \partial_n$ are $n$-dimensional
**cycles**. - $B_n = \mathrm{im}\, \partial_{n+1}$ are $n$-dimensional
**boundaries**, indicating $n$-dimensional cycles that become homotopic after adding $(n+1)$-simplices. - $B_n \subseteq Z_n \subseteq C_n$, and $0 \to B_n \to Z_n \to H_n \to 0$ is a short exact sequence.

- A
**chain map**$f : C_\bullet \to D_\bullet$ is a morphism of chain complexes, i.e. a sequence of homomorphisms $f_n : C_n \to D_n$ such that $f\partial = \partial f$.- A chain map $f$ induces homomorphisms $f_* : H_n(C_\bullet) \to H_n(D_\bullet)$, taking $f_*([x]) = [f(x)]$.
- $\partial$ is a chain map.
- For any sequence of homomorphisms $s_n : C_n \to D_n$, the map $s\partial + \partial s$ is a chain map, but it induces the zero homomorphism. Thus, if the difference between two chain maps $f - g = s\partial + \partial s$ for some map $s_n$, called a
**chain homotopy**, then $f_* = g_*$, and $f$ and $g$ are**chain-homotopic**.

- The
**homology**of a chain complex are defined as $H_n(C_\bullet) = \mathrm{ker}\,\partial_n / \mathrm{im}\, \partial_{n+1}$.- $H_n : \,\mathrm{Comp} \to \mathrm{Ab}$ is a functor.
- $H_n$ represents “holes” enclosed by $n$-dimensional sheets.
- $H_0$ represents connected components.

- An
**exact sequence**is a chain complex with trivial homology, i.e. $\ker\partial_n \cong \mathrm{im}\, \partial_{n+1}$.- Note that this condition already implies that $\partial^2 = 0$.
- $0 \to A \hookrightarrow^\alpha B$ is exact iff $\alpha$ is injective.
- $Y \twoheadrightarrow^\beta Z \to 0$ is exact iff $\beta$ is surjective.
- $0 \to A \to^\alpha Z \to 0$ is exact iff $\alpha$ is an isomorphism.

- A
**short exact sequence**is an exact sequence of the form $0 \to A \hookrightarrow^{\iota_A} B \twoheadrightarrow^{\pi_C} C \to 0$.**First isomorphism theorem:**$C \cong B/A$ (viewing $A \subseteq B$), since $A \cong \mathrm{im}\, \iota_A \cong \ker \pi_C$.**Splitting lemma:**$B \cong A \oplus C$ with $\iota_A$ and $\pi_C$ canonical, iff $\iota_A$ has a left inverse $\pi_A$, iff $\pi_C$ has a right inverse $\iota_C$.- If $C$ is free, then the sequence splits.
**Snake lemma, five-lemma, nine-lemma.**

**Zig-zag lemma:**if $0 \to A_{\bullet} \to^\alpha B_{\bullet} \to^\beta C_{\bullet} \to 0$ is a short exact sequence of chain complexes, then the following sequence of homology groups is exact: $\cdots \to H_{n}(A_{\bullet}) \to^{\alpha_*} H_n(B_{\bullet}) \to^{\beta_*} H_n(C_{\bullet}) \to^\delta H_{n-1}(A_{\bullet}) \to \cdots$ with the connecting homomorphism $\delta$.- Homology of spaces
- In
**simplicial homology**, we set $C_n^\Delta$ to be the free abelian group generated by the $n$-simplices of a $\Delta$-complex $X$ and boundary map generated by $\partial_n [ v_0, \ldots, v_n] = \sum_{i = 0}^n (-1)^i [v_0, \ldots, \hat{v}_i, \ldots, v_n].$ - In
**singular homology**, we set $C_n$ to be the free abelian group generated by all maps $\sigma : \Delta^n \to X$ and boundary map generated by $\partial_n (\sigma) = \sum_{i=1}^n (-1)^i \sigma|_{[v_0, \ldots, \hat{v}_i, \ldots, v_n]}.$- These define functors $C_\bullet : \,\mathrm{Top} \to \mathrm{Comp}$ and induce $H_n : \,\mathrm{Top} \to \mathrm{Ab}$.
- A map $f: X \to Y$ induces a chain map $f_\sharp : C_\bullet(X) \to C_\bullet(Y)$ by mapping $\sigma$ to the composition $\Delta^n \to^\sigma X \to^f Y$ (which in turn induces homomorphisms $H_n(X) \to H_n(Y)$).
- If $f$ and $g$ are homotopic, then $f_\sharp$ and $g_\sharp$ are chain-homotopic (and $f_* = g_*$).
- If $X$ and $Y$ are homotopy equivalent, then $H_n(X) \cong H_n(Y)$.
- This motivates the category $\mathrm{hComp}$.

- Additionally,
**reduced homology**sets $C_{-1} = \mathbb{Z}$, with $\epsilon : C_0 \to \mathbb{Z}$ defined as $\sigma \mapsto 1$ extended linearly. The homology groups are denoted $\tilde{H}_n$ and satisfy $\tilde{H}_n = H_n$ except $\tilde{H}_0 \oplus \mathbb{Z} = H_0$. - $\tilde{H}_n(*) = 0$.
- $\tilde{H}_n(S^n) = \mathbb{Z}$ and $\tilde{H}_k(S^n) = 0$ for $k \ne n$.
- The
**relative chain complex**$C_\bullet(X, A)$ for $A \subseteq X$ is defined as $C_n(X, A)= C_n(X) / C_n(A)$, with boundary maps $\partial : C_n(X,A) \to C_{n-1}(X,A)$ given by $\partial([x]) = [\partial x]$ (well-defined by a diagram chase). - The
**relative homology groups**$H_n(X,A)$ are the homology groups of $C_\bullet(X,A)$.- Chains in $A$ become trivial.
- $H_n(X, \varnothing) = H_n(X)$, and $H_n(X, *) = \tilde{H}_n(X)$.
- A map $f : (X,A) \to (Y,B)$, i.e. $f : X \to Y$ with $f(A) \subseteq B$, induces a chain map $f_\sharp : C_\bullet(X,A) \to C_\bullet(Y,B)$.
**Good pair:**$H_n(X, A) \cong \tilde{H}_n(X/A)$ if $A \ne \varnothing$ is closed and a deformation retract of some neighborhood of $X$, with the isomorphism induced by $\pi : (X,A) \to (X/A, A/A)$.**Excision theorem:**If $\mathrm{cl}(Z) \subseteq \mathrm{int}(A) \subseteq X$, then $H_n(X,A) \cong H_n(X - Z, A-Z)$ with the isomorphism induced by $\iota : (X - Z, A-Z) \to (X,A)$.- Equivalently, if $\mathrm{int}(A) \cup \mathrm{int}(B) = X$, then $H_n(X, A) \cong H_n(B,A \cap B)$.

**Long exact sequence of a pair:**Applying the zig-zag lemma to the short exact sequence $0 \to C_\bullet(A) \to^\iota C_\bullet(X) \to^\pi C_\bullet(X,A) \to 0,$ the following sequence is exact: $\cdots \to H_n(A) \to^{\iota_*} H_n(X) \to^{\pi_*} H_n(X,A) \to^{\partial_*} H_{n-1}(A) \to \cdots,$ with connecting homomorphism $\partial_*([\alpha]) = [\partial \alpha]$ for $[\alpha] \in H_n(X,A)$ (and thus $\alpha \in C_n(X,A)$ is a relative cycle).**Long exact sequence of a triple:**If $Z \subseteq A \subseteq X$, we can easily generalize using the short exact sequence $0 \to C_\bullet(A,Z) \to C_\bullet(X,Z) \to C_\bullet(X,A) \to 0.$**Mayer-Vietoris sequence:**Suppose $\mathrm{int}(A) \cup \mathrm{int}(B) = X$. Applying the zig-zag lemma to the short exact sequence $0 \to C_\bullet(A \cap B) \to^{(1,-1)} C_\bullet(A) \oplus C_\bullet(B) \to^{+} C_\bullet(A) + C_\bullet(B) \to 0,$ the following sequence is exact: $\cdots \to H_n(A \cap B) \to H_n(A) \oplus H_n(B) \to H_n(X) \to^{\partial_*} H_{n-1}(A \cap B) \to \cdots,$ with connecting homomorphism $\partial([a + b]) = [\partial a] = [-\partial b]$ for $a \in C_n(A)$ and $b \in C_n(B)$.

- \todo Example of calculating simplicial homology
- Cellular homology
- Brouwer fixed point theorem
- $R^m = R^n$
- Relate fundamental group and homology
- Cohomology
- The
**cochain complex**is obtained by applying the contravariant functor $\mathrm{Hom}(-, G)$ to a chain complex $C$: $\cdots \leftarrow^d C^{n+1} \leftarrow^d C^n \leftarrow^d C^{n-1} \leftarrow^d \cdots,$ with coboundary map $d = \partial^*$, so $d^2 = 0$. - The
**cohomology groups**are $H^n(C; G) = \ker d/\mathrm{im}\, d$.- $\mathrm{Hom}(\mathbb{Z}, G) = G$.
- $\mathrm{Hom}(\mathbb{Z}_n, \mathbb{Z}) = 0$.
- $\mathrm{Hom}(\mathbb{Z}_a, \mathbb{Z}_b) = \mathbb{Z}_{\mathrm{gcd}(a,b)}$.
- $\mathrm{Hom}(\mathbb{Z}_n, G) = \ker(G \to^n G)$.
- $\mathrm{Hom}(A \oplus B, G) = \mathrm{Hom}(A, G) \oplus \mathrm{Hom}(B, G)$.

**Universal coefficient theorem:**The homology and cohomology groups are related by the split exact sequence $0 \to \mathrm{Ext}(H_{n-1}(C), G) \to H^n(C; G) \to \mathrm{Hom}(H_n(C), G) \to 0.$- A
**free resolution**$F$ of an abelian group $H$ is an exact sequence of the form $\cdots \to F_1 \to F_0 \to H \to 0,$ where $F_i$ is free. Homomorphisms $\alpha : H \to H'$ can be extended to a chain map $\alpha : F \to F'$, unique up to chain-homotopy. For any two free resolutions $F$ and $F'$ of the same abelian group, $H^n(F;G) \cong H^n(F'; G)$. - Every abelian group has a free resolution of the form $0 \to F_1 \hookrightarrow F_0 \twoheadrightarrow H \to 0,$ with $F_0$ freely generated by generators of $H$, and $F_1$ the kernel of the surjection.
**Ext functor:**$\mathrm{Ext}(H, G)$ is the first cohomology group of a free resolution of $H$ excluding $H$, i.e. the first homology group of $0 \leftarrow \mathrm{Hom}(F_1, G) \leftarrow \mathrm{Hom}(F_0,G) \leftarrow 0.$- $\mathrm{Ext}(H \oplus H', G) \cong \mathrm{Ext}(H,G) \oplus \mathrm{Ext}(H',G)$.
- $\mathrm{Ext}(H, G) = 0$ if $H$ is free.
- $\mathrm{Ext}(\mathbb{Z}_n, G) = G/nG$.
- If $H_i(X; \mathbb{Z}) \cong \mathbb{Z}^{\beta_i} \oplus T_i$ where $T_i$ is the torsion part, then $H^i(X; \mathbb{Z}) \cong \mathbb{Z}^{\beta_i} \oplus T_{i-1}$.